The human communities of the Peneda-Gerês National Park are similar to each other by the characteristics of mountain regions they share and are distinguished by the cultural specificities that history, isolation and different local resources have given them.
Agriculture is the dominant activity in almost the entire territory of the Park. Small-scale agriculture based on cereal crops (maize and rye) and the production of potatoes, beans and various vegetables, is complemented by pastoralism, an activity that has long been the main foundation of these mountain economies.
Although their weight has been decreasing, indigenous breeds such as barrosã and cachena in cattle, wild goat in goats and bordaleira sheep in sheep are still important sources of income.
Also noteworthy is the garrano, a Luso-Galizian horse that moves freely in the mountains of the Park, because despite having lost its function as a means of transport and assisting in agricultural activities, it is, until today, a livestock species to be privileged, not only for its robustness and adaptability to the saw, but also because it was in danger of extinction.
Beekeeping and handicrafts (smoking, in particular) are another component of agricultural activity with great tradition and importance in the Peneda-Gerês National Park.
If the pace of rural exodus is not so marked today, however, the marks that decades of emigration left in these communities to animals, thus contributing to the continuity of a landscape in which people and nature are integrated and which is undoubtedly one of the aspects that best characterize the National Park.